After World War II, the number of restaurants specializing in fast food grew tremendously, and each needed a special feature to survive in the competitive marketplace.

no matter where fast food restaurants are located or what type of food they sell, their most fundamental operating principle is standardization. A hamburger from New York must taste the same as the one prepared in London, or in Kinshasa or Lubumbashi. To succeed with this formula of selling the exact same food everywhere, fast food industries must offer a standardized menu that limits the number of food choices.

Slogan such as ''we love to see you smile'', ''what you want is what you get'' have been used as advertisements by fast food companies over the years. With commercials featuring cheerful music and catchy jingles broadcast on radio and television, they rely on sophisticated marketing to convince consumers that their product offers the best taste and value, or is the most fun to eat. Much of the marketing of fast food is specially targeted to children. They frequently offer a free toy with every purchase and in so doing, the children will persuade their parents to take them there. To attract adults, fast foodd marketing campaigns emphasize the method of food preparation rather than fun. Typical promotions are ''two for the price of one'' or '' Buy one at the regular price and get a second one free!''.

There have been innumerable contests at fast food companies, with the expectation that customers will feel hungry as well as lucky. Prizes can range from a free product or drink to an all - expenses - paid vacation. Whether by gimmicks or giveaways, marketing in the fast food industry is crucial because it helps firms distinguish themeselves from competitors that offer almost excatly the same type of produce.

1. To attract the passers - by fast food marketing campains should focus a lens on:

2. The word ''them'' undederlined in paragraph three refers to:

3. The title which suits the paragraph two is:

4. The term ''toy'' (line 10) is used for the:


5. Indicate the combination which associates correctly items (I) with those in (II) to get pair of words with similar meaning.

(I) (II)
1. peerformance-related pay a. leadership
2. management b. retailer
3. advertising c. promotion
4. wholesaler d. client
5. customer e. bonus

6. Hundreds of visitors gathered in Kinshasa to visit the regulator robot,...



Cloth Merchant

25, Q. des Ambassadeurs Kinshasa - R.D.C.

Mr Yvor Evans June 15th, 2016

Manufacturer of Finest Cloth

Dear Sir,

I refer to your offer of the 9th of this month and have pleasure in enclosing a request #1250. As the goods are urgently required, I would ask you to arrange for immediate delivery.

The pattern book, which you kindly submitted together with your offer, will be sent back to you separately.

Yours faithfuly, ----> 5

John Bradley



7. John Bradley's letter to Yvor Evans is:

8. The numbered part ''5'' stands for the:


9. Indicate the sentence which expresses one's readiness to accept an interview.


10. Un informaticien accuse quelques failles dans l'execution de certains programmes et voudrait pour l'intéret supérieur de l'entreprise soumettre les faits à son employeur. L'objet de sa lettre sera motivé par une demande de:

11. La retenue qui représente l'intéret de l'argent durant la période qui sépare la date de la négociation de celle de l'échéance est appelée:

12. Vous etes en relation d'affaires avec la Société BENEDICTE, qui est l'une des filiales du groupe ATOUR.Dans le cadre des opérations que vous etes amené à traiter, vous avez demandé à la société BENEDICTE que ses engagements soient garantis par la société-mère ATOUR. Vous recevez de celle-ci une lettre au terme de laquelle ''elle prend l'engagement de faire tout le nécessaire pour que sa filiale dispose d'une trésorerie suffisante lui permettant de faire face aux obligationspar elle contractées envers votre banque...'''. La terminologie utilisée est synonyme de: ''Je veillerai en toutes circonstances à ce que la société x dispose des fonds nécessaires pour rembourser votre crédit...''.

Le reproche à cet écrit repose sur:

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